On Deep Work

Deep work, as defined by Cal Newport, refers to “Professional activities performed in a state of distraction-free concentration that push your cognitive capabilities to their limit.”

Be honest, how many hours of deep work do you do per day? I’m guessing the answer for most people is between zero to an hour.

When you think about this, isn’t it a bit sad? We probably spent more time doing deep work in high school and college while studying than we do in our jobs, where we’re supposed to work.

A large part of this, I believe, is due to the typical office environment. The printer is humming at a hundred miles an hour; your co-workers across from you are discussing the latest episode of Game of Thrones; your colleague beside you is having a heated argument with a client on the phone; the talking heads on the flat-screen wall TV are rambling on about Trump’s latest tweet; your boss comes up behind you and asks you how your weekend was…you get the picture.

Why is deep work important? Deep work is what leads to creation: art, writing, music, code – meaningful output of any kind.

Shallow work, characterized by constant distraction and little conscious effort, leads to emails. Hundreds of emails that ultimately produce little value.

Consistent shallow work is more detrimental than first glance though. Studies have shown that people who multitask all the time can’t filter out irrelevancy. “Once your brain has become accustomed to on-demand distraction, it’s hard to shake the addiction even when you want to concentrate.”

I see this all the time. I’ll be in a meeting with someone, their phone pings alerting them of an email, and they simply can’t help but glance down. We could be in the middle of an important discussion and their entire train of thought goes out the window – just like that.

If you’ve ever looked back on your day and wondered what you actually accomplished, the solution is to schedule deep work into your day. Block out at least an hour in your calendar and lock yourself in a room with no WiFi. Resist the urge to check your phone or email or surf the Web. Focus on the task at hand.

When I engage in this kind of deep work, usually using the Pomodoro Technique, I’m always surprised by how much I can get done in a short period of time. After a while of doing this, you realize that most people simply do not work as hard as they think they do. Time spent at work or doing busywork is by no means indicative of how much actual work gets done.

Key takeaways:

  • Start scheduling periods of deep work into your day. Start small with just a 20-minute block of absolutely focused work, and slowly increase it.
  • Schedule research and Internet time later, when you’re not doing deep work. A quick tip is to write [TK] in places where you need to come back to later and find it with a Ctrl+F. Few words naturally have TK in them.
  • Be OK feeling ‘bored’. Like Louis CK says, resist that urge to pick up the cell phone when you feel that ping of boredom. This will help deepen your focus when you need to.
  • Avoid multitasking as much as possible. This includes doing shallow work in the evenings when you should be relaxing.

How to Avoid Information Overload

This is a repost of my most popular answer on Quora. It’s apparently been distributed to and read by over a million people. I’m a bit blown away by that, but I suppose it’s an indicator that the topic of information overload is a pressing issue today.

I just re-read the answer and still fully agree with what I wrote. I still have a long way to go before I’ll be happy with my c:p ratio, but like anything incremental improvements will go a long way over time.


Question: I feel like I’m wasting my time when I’m reading. Is that wrong?

I can relate. For many years, I was stuck in the same trap you describe. I spent hours every day just browsing forums, reading various blogs, and consuming a lot of stuff that had no impact on my life.

Eventually it hit me how much time I’d been wasting. I looked at my consumption:production ratio. I was consuming all of this information but not actually doing anything with it – my C:P ratio was completely skewed.

The most successful people in this world have a C:P ratio that is much more heavily favored in the production side. They’re out there creating things, whether it be art, writing, businesses, etc. adding value to others or themselves in some way. They’re the ones writing the blogs and books. They take action.

What I had been consuming had no material impact on my life. It wasn’t like I was implementing things I had read and making vast improvements to better myself. No, I was just going through the same routine of mindlessly browsing the Internet consuming useless info.

I thought I was “learning” but really it was just another way to pass the time. So I made the decision to fix my C:P ratio. I stopped following the news. I deleted my RSS feed of blogs I’d visit. I stopped going onto sites like reddit and Business Insider. I deactivated my Facebook account every so often. I (tried) watching fewer videos on YouTube.

All of this helped reduce the amount of useless information I was taking in, and freed up time for me to work on producing things or learning new skills that would better me.

I also began to read more physical books, as the signal:noise ratio is generally much higher (i.e. more useful information). Still, I’ve come to realize there’s such a thing as information overload when it comes reading books as well after having read 80 books last year. These days I generally read things only if I need the information and will actually take action from what I’ve read.

The conventional wisdom is that it doesn’t matter what you read, because anything you read will benefit you in some way. I disagree. “Junk reading” exists in the same way junk eating does. Just like how junk food contains very little nutritional value and is full of empty calories, junk information contains little actionable advice and fills your brain with useless facts.

Information overload is a real concern these days. It leads to analysis paralysis and a never-ending pursuit of knowledge just for the sake of knowledge. There’s so much info out there it would take many lifetimes just to get through it all – so it’s up to us to filter through it to determine what’s relevant to us.

I’m not saying you have to meticulously plan out what you consume or that you can’t read for entertainment. Once in while, it’s probably even a good idea to venture outside your comfort zone and read/watch something completely outside your usual domain. But always keep in mind your C:P ratio. If you’re unhappy with where you are and how you’re spending your time, it’s best to reduce your consumption.

Note that all information isn’t some binary “useless” or “not useless.” If you’re reading gossip blogs about what Kim Kardashian has been up to lately just for the sake of keeping up with the Kardashians, I’d wager it’s useless. But if you’re an on-air reporter for E! Entertainment TV, then keeping up with the Kardashians is likely one of the most important things you do.

6 Wastes of Time In Your 20s

As humans, we’re all born to different circumstances, but the one commonality we share is time. What we do and where we end up in life is most impacted by how we spend this incredibly valuable asset.

Unfortunately, it’s hard to fully appreciate this asset in your early 20s and prior, precisely because it’s so abundant at this age. And yet how we spend our time during these formative years is so important; an early investment of time in something can pay dividends for years and decades down the road.

After thinking about the various ways in which I’ve wasted and waste time, I’ve come up with the list below.

The problem with the following items is that they feel good in the moment, but don’t actually generate much happiness/utility/benefit after the fact. They’re forms of instant gratification, much like candy. You could eat five bags of candy in one sitting and feel great while doing so, but almost immediately after regret your decision to do so. I’ve found I react the same way to the following activities.

And to those who say time enjoyed is not time wasted, I agree…but only to an extent. Take an extreme example: I could do drugs all day and have the time of my life – yet we can all agree that that “time enjoyed” was certainly wasted, unproductive, and even harmful.

So, on to what I think the biggest time wasters are:

Alcohol
Consider a typical night out in college:

Pre-game for an hour, head out to the bar to drink for a couple hours, go to an after-party/club for another couple hours, find a pizza joint after and spend another hour eating/chatting, finally head home at 3-4 am, then wake up hungover the next day and stay in bed half the day nursing a headache.

When you repeat the above multiple times a week for several years, the hours quickly add up.

Now, yes, you may argue that all that going out serves a purpose: to meet new people and develop relationships with. But let’s face it: most people in their early 20s go out for the sake of getting drunk with a close-knit circle.

I realized pretty early on in college that I didn’t enjoy getting sloshed to the extent my peers did. So I simply stopped accepting invites to go out when I knew the event centered around consuming as much alcohol as one could. Once I came to terms with not letting these feelings of pressure / societal expectations dictate my evenings, I was free to spend my nights on other hobbies or events – reading, writing, playing poker, trying board games with friends, learning new skills, playing intramural league, or just sleeping early.

Now, none of this isn’t to say I think alcohol is bad or that I never drink – I just think it’s important to have a good relationship with it.

It’s still too early to say how this will impact my future, but I can say for certain that had I gone out more this past year, I would not have had the time to read 80+ books, learn copywriting & direct marketing, generate income from poker, and spend as much quality time with friends.

I’m also comforted by the fact that others have echoed this idea. For instance: Ryan Holiday recently credited not drinking as instrumental for his success at an early age.

Bad Relationships
Just glance at all the relationship questions on Quora and you’ll see bad relationships are one of the biggest headaches and timesucks for people in their 20s.

People stick around too long in bad relationships and try to make it work with the wrong people. This doesn’t just mean incompatible boyfriends/girlfriends – it includes negative people, people who drain you of your energy, compulsive complainers/whiners, abusive family members, etc.

Realize that you are allowed to cut people out from your life. You can stop accepting invites to go out. You don’t have to try and salvage every relationship and every friendship. As you get older, you’ll naturally be more exclusive with who you associate with. I think the sooner one realizes this, the better.

Video Games
I spent my entire teenage life playing games. I easily racked up hundreds, if not a thousand, hours of playing video games. In first year college, I would routinely stay up playing Heroes of Newerth with friends over Skype. I actually essentially lost money while I was playing because at the time, my hourly rate playing online poker was $100-200 – a huge opportunity cost. The addiction was real.

I not only played for hours every night, I also studied my past games, watched streams, and read guides all in the name of improving myself. That took up another few hours every day.

Were there benefits from all this? I really can’t say at the moment. I want to believe that this compulsive drive to better myself at anything I do translates into other endeavors. But what if I had simply put my time and energy into something else to begin with?

Yes, I enjoyed playing video games in the heat of the moment. But once in a while, there would be a hollow feeling inside me. Did 3 hours really just go by? And think of all the things I’m procrastinating on… Eventually, I realized gaming didn’t align with my future goals at all. I slowly eased off of it and eventually quit for the most part.

When it comes to determining whether gaming is a waste of time or not, it helps to decide which side of the “# hours played” curve you wish to be on. On one side, you have 1000+ hours – this is if you have ambitions to go pro, enter the competitive scene, become a prominent YouTuber, start a Twitch stream, or some other way to monetize your gaming. On the other side is <100 hours – think of the casual gamer who plays for an hour every couple of days after work to unwind.

Falling on polar ends of this spectrum seems to be ideal for optimizing your time. Either you make gaming your life’s work or you use it as a relaxation tool. The problem area is the middle area in between these two poles – where you spend so much time gaming that it interferes with your regular life but you don’t spend enough time to reach the top or monetize your gaming hobby.

When it came to HoN, I fell in that middle area. I was good but not top-tier and frankly, never really thought about going pro. I spent a lot of time playing and studying, but not enough that I could monetize that time. However, it was enough time that the game affected my sleep schedule, study habits, and social life to some degree.

I could write a lot more on this topic (and probably will in the future), but I’ll leave it at that for now.

Living Someone Else’s Life

For the better part of our entire lives up to our 20s, we largely follow the instructions of others – our parents, our teachers, our peers, the media…rarely do we make a major decision without influence from others.

Left unquestioned, the result is we spend a large part of our lives living in a way that doesn’t resonate with who we really are. We may choose to do things based on what others think is best for us and discard the very things that could have led us to genuine happiness.

I have a friend who was pushed all his life to become a doctor. He studied all the sciences in high school, majored in biochem in undergrad, then entered medical school. A couple years in now, he’s come to terms with the fact that he doesn’t truly enjoy what he’s learning or the path he’s taken. Yet he feels like he’s spent too much time, effort, and money already not to continue on.

Realize that what others say you should be is based upon their own experiences and how they feel you’d be of more value to them. Neither should be the basis for determining how you should live your life.

The early 20s are a great time to question the ‘truths’ you’ve been taught growing up and figuring out who you are, what you really enjoy, and how you want to live your life. Taking the time to do so can be really rewarding and prevent time wasted living someone else’s life.

Accepting Complacency
It’s supremely easy after you graduate college and get a full-time job to fall into a state of complacency. You’re making decent money, your schedule is largely fixed, you have a daily routine, and you mostly associate with the same people. Life is pretty good for the most part, and it’s easy to just coast along.

As humans, we seek this kind of comfort and stability. We wouldn’t have survived as a species till now otherwise. But comfort breeds complacency, and complacency can be dangerous. It hinders personal growth, which to me is an important aspect of life. Even moreso in your 20s, when time and energy is abundant and responsibilities are still relatively few. At no other time in your life will you have the same kind of opportunity – accepting complacency at this age can only lead to mediocrity.

What’s especially dangerous about complacency is that it’s a non-obvious timesink. You may feel “stuck” but choose to continue living within the status quo simply because it’s safe: an OK job without advancement potential because it pays the bills; a mediocre long-term relationship that you’re staying in for convenience and obligation (“I’ve already invested 5 years into this, easier to ride it out”); pursuing a degree in something half-heartedly on behalf of your parents.

Next thing you know, several years have gone by and you’re stuck in the same job or relationship or major in college discontent, wondering where the time went.

Do Something

This past weekend, I was running behind schedule to go to the gym. It closes at 7pm, and at 6:30pm I hadn’t even left the house. It takes me about 15 minutes to walk there.

I had a decision to make: do I go to the gym, with about 15 minutes to do a workout, or do I give in and tell myself I’ll do it the next day?

It seems like a somewhat trivial decision at first glance. After all, missing one workout a week won’t make or break me.

But throughout our lives, these kinds of decisions occur thousands of times. The choices you make in these moments compound and can have an enormous impact in the long run. Sure, missing one workout won’t have much of an impact on my health or body. But that one workout missed just once a week amounts to 52 missed in a year. And hundreds missed in several years.

Plus, once you miss that first workout, you rationalize to yourself it’s OK to miss the next one. And then the next. When you accept that first excuse you tell yourself, it gets easier and easier to accept the next ones. You train yourself for complacency. You hold yourself accountable less and less.

Thus I think this seemingly trivial decision was, and is, very important.

So back to the story…at 6:35 pm, I finally left the house. Instead of walking there, like I usually do, I half-sprinted there. I got there in about 5 minutes. 6:40 pm.

When I walked in, the staff were already beginning to pack up. I handed the guy at the counter my card, to which he said, “Uh, you know we’re closing at 7, right?”

“Yeah. Going to do a quick workout.”

And I did. I superset all my exercises back-to-back-to-back. It wasn’t the workout that I had planned on doing, but I got it done nonetheless in about 20 minutes (Parkinson’s Law, anybody?).

Why do I think this story is important? Well, this decision is like a microcosm of a philosophy I try to apply in my life.

It’s called the do something principle: When faced with a choice between doing something and not, doing something is better than doing nothing.

It sounds so obvious it’s not even worth mentioning.

But it’s often the most obvious or trite advice – sayings we’ve heard millions of times they’ve lost their impact – that are actually the most powerful.

A mediocre workout is better than no workout at all.

Writing just 100 words a day is better than writing nothing at all.

Reading five pages a day is better than not reading at all.

Practising the piano for 10 minutes is better than not practising at all.

Again, obvious, right? Yet for many of us this principle is actually difficult to apply.

We look at starting something new and think that we immediately have to go from 0 to 100, otherwise there’s no point to doing it at all.

A friend of mine wanted to start running every night for half an hour. She bought all the right equipment and clothes to get started. But she eventually realized she couldn’t dedicate the full half hour she wanted to. She didn’t think there was a point to run for just ten minutes a night. So she gave up entirely.

So despite the obviousness of the concept, it’s a handy one to keep in mind. The next time you want to forgo your workout, or are procrastinating on something, just do something. You’ll be glad you did. And it’s infinitely better than doing nothing.

How to Make $1 Million in Four Years After University

There’s an amazing answer on Quora in response to a question of how to make $250k/year in income.

Anonymous writes:

2010 (90k/yr):
Graduated from uPenn and went to work for Bloomberg (80k base and 10k bonus). Decided that was not enough at all so I started creating websites on the side. One site I made was called biteads.com, barely made anything out of it but the site introduced me to affiliate marketing.

2011 (105k/yr):
Quit my job in Bloomberg and went to Amazon (85k base and 20k bonus) because I was sick of fortran (30% of bloomberg’s code base). Bought a half completed vacant wreak house for dirt cheap with the intention of finishing it up and selling it.

2012 (200k/yr):
Still at amazon (90k with 20k bonus). Still building the house. Continued making websites, I used my affiliate marketing experience in biteads.com to make another site called mutex.me. Mutex was a small hit generated (5k-8k) a month which added up to around 90k a year.

2013 (215k):
Still at amazon (100k + 25k)
Mutex still making money (90k)
Finishing up the house.
Bought another house to finish and sell.

2014 (1.18MM)
Still at Amazon (110k + 30k)
Mutex still making money (90k)
Selling house with projected profit of 250k.
Nearly completed 2nd house with projected profit of 700k.
Using that money to buy/build 3rd house. Which based on the market should make around the same as the 2nd house.

It’s a great answer because of how frank he is revealing his path to creating wealth. These are relatively clear action steps that others can take themselves to replicate it. Obviously it takes a great deal of time to learn how to actually execute on them, but anyone could theoretically learn how to. Under this light, making $250k/year, which very few people ever do, seems much more attainable.

It’s worth the note that he did this all while maintaining his full-time job, which I think is great. Our society seems to admire the “all or nothing” approach to success. We love hearing stories of college dropouts who went on to achieve great success. We revel in stories of those who laid it all on the line by quitting their full-time job or mortgaging their house to start their entrepreneurial journey.

What’s hardly ever touted, arguably the less sexy route, is holding your full-time job while working on a side hustle. I’d argue that this route, however, is probably better suited for most people. The job provides you with a source of income that you can use to reinvest elsewhere (paying for the down payment of real estate, for example). It gives you much needed time to validate your idea, test the proof of concept, and acquire early leads and pre-sales, all while maintaining your current lifestyle. This mitigates risk early on in the business, which is conceivably when risk is highest.

The problem with working full-time and managing a side-hustle is if holding a safe corporate job inhibits you from taking any further risks or trying new things outside of work. We all know people who continue working jobs they hate while doing nothing about it because they’re complacent with their steady paycheck. I experienced this through a drop in dedication on my side projects immediately after I began work (although I’d like to think I’ve picked it back up now).  All else equal, the person with the job providing a steady income is going to work less hard on his time off than the entrepreneur who has to work just to pay the bills. This increase in risk-aversion can be profoundly  negative to future success. As late billionaire Felix Dennis said, the ability to live with and embrace risks is what sets apart the financial winners and losers in the world.

So the way around this complacency is to view your full-time job as a means to an end, rather than a permanent position. This doesn’t mean you can slack off at work. Ideally you’d work as hard as you can in your job, and then work just as hard at home (I’ve found that laziness has a way of easily seeping into everything you do, so it’s best to be avoided in general). But the idea is to one day have the freedom to quit the job and work full-time on your side-hustle-turned primary business.

This approach will essentially require you to work two jobs, resulting in 60-80+ hour weeks. This is what it’ll take if you want financial freedom though. Nobody ever gets rich working forty hours a week. Nobody ever gets rich complaining they don’t have time or don’t feel like working after a long day. While everyone else heads home from their 9-5 and turns on Netflix, people like Anon spend their nights coding side projects and closing real estate deals.

It’s a great story of hustle and one worth emulating.

What Reading 80 Books in 2014 Taught Me About Reading

This past year, I decided to instill a new habit to my life: reading. I realized it was probably the most important improvement I could make that would pay the greatest dividends. I started the year off at a frenetic pace, reading upwards of ten books a month to start, but gradually found a happier medium settling at 5-6 books a month (I was also still in school for the first half of the year, giving me more time to read). In total, I read 80 books in 2014 and more non-fiction books than I’d read in my entire life previously.

You can see my reading list here along with my thoughts on some of them.

Here are 10 things I learned about reading this past year:

1. It’s OK to give up on a book
I finished 80 books this year, but I also dropped 20-30 other books because I wasn’t getting any value from them. I used to feel guilty about doing this, following the mantra I had to finish what I started, but I quickly realized this was a waste of time. I accepted that it’s fine to quit books you don’t like or aren’t doing anything for you.

The timing of when you read a book is sometimes everything – there’s no shame in shelving it to read later, when it may be more applicable to your life. I felt this way while reading many business books. Such books were often targeted towards senior managers or people who were already at the helm of thriving businesses – not so relevant for my present situation. Some books I picked up were simply bad. For these books, I generally gave it 50 pages, then skipped ahead to see if there was anything useful I could pick up from skimming it. No one says you have to read a book from start to finish, either.

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The Importance of Keystone Habits

Habits create the foundation of our lives and shape who we are. They either lead us to success or detract us from it.

Some habits, however, are considered more important than others. They have the ability to start a chain reaction of other good habits. They influence other actions and routines such as how we sleep, eat, live, and think.

These habits are aptly called “keystone habits,” because they lock all the other habits in place.

It’s clear upon reflection that for me, exercise is my keystone habit.

I’ve noticed that following workouts, I eat more (I’m trying to gain muscle), eat healthier, sleep better, feel calmer, and am even more productive. Everything else seems to fall into place easier. On days where I don’t workout, or don’t exercise at all for multiple days in a row, I feel sluggish, eat terribly, and feel like my head is clouded with fog.

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Cultivate Your Gratitude Muscle

Be thankful for what you have; you’ll end up having more. If you concentrate on what you don’t have, you will never, ever have enough.
-Oprah Winfrey

It’s Thanksgiving here in the US, and that means there’s an air of gratitude and thankfulness.

It’s one of the best holidays, but being happy and grateful shouldn’t be limited just to Thanksgiving. Gratitude and thanks should be given year-round.

The gratitude muscle is like any other muscle. If you don’t use it often, it’ll wither and be weak.

Focusing on the negative is easy. The average person supposedly complains 30 times a day. It’s like this Louis C.K. video where he says “everything is amazing and nobody’s happy.”

It helps to take a step back in these situations and look through a different perspective.

  • Unhappy with the taxes you pay? Be thankful, it means you’re employed.
  • Unhappy with the alarm that goes off in the morning? Cool, it means you’re alive for another day and your ears work.
  • Unhappy with the rain outside? Great! You live in a place where water is abundant.

Gratitude is one of those things that sound wishy-washy, but I’ve noticed when I write down or think of things & people I’m grateful for, I’m noticeably happier after. I feel more present when I do so, and it’s given me the inner perspective to treat others with more kindness and respect. There’s some science to support this, too, as gratitude has been linked to the feel-good hormone oxytocin.

Wherever you are in the world, even if it’s not Thanksgiving, take some time today to exercise your gratitude muscle. Think of five people you’re grateful for right now. Better yet, let them know.

One Simple Way to Maintain Good Habits

This past week, I worked close to 80 hours at my full-time job. While I’m sure my friends in investment banking would scoff at those hours, it was a new experience for me. It’d be a stretch to say that I loved every single hour of it, but for the most part I got through it relatively unscathed (although I’m sure this won’t be the last time I pull these hours).

That being said, spending 80 hours a week on work does make it more difficult to find time for the rest of one’s typical routine. I’m sure you’ve been there at some point yourself – those days where you’ve spent all your energy and the only thing you want to do, or perhaps are capable of doing, is flopping on the couch and watching TV.

We feel guilty, though, because we know better. We have goals to achieve and habits to stick to, and we know we should be pursuing them for our greater benefit. So how do we do it?

For me, my personal priorities are fairly simple: hit the gym at least three times a week; spend quality, silent time reading books every day; and write and publish a post at least once a week.

I’ve been able to stick to this routine successfully by keeping in mind one simple idea, even amid this past 80-hour work week.

The idea is this:

Reduce the scope, but stick to the schedule

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How to Live a Remarkable Life – The 10 Pillars of Success

I’ve been thinking recently about how I define success, and what a life well-lived encompasses. I’ve come up with ten pillars that I believe create the foundation for how I wish to live my life. My goal for outlining these is to help myself define my beliefs, but more importantly, to amplify the success of you, the reader, who may share the same values.

Below are the ten pillars I have defined as the keys to success. If you like these ideas – great – you’ve found a community of like-minded people.


1. Be the gladiator in the arena, not the spectator in the sidelines

It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood…who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat.
-Teddy Roosevelt

To be the doer and not the critic. This distinction defines how you spend your days and how you tackle the inevitable problems life will throw at you. It’s easy to remain on the sidelines and judge those in the arena from the safety of the crowd. It’s easy to watch their vulnerability, their failures, their missteps with guilty pleasure. In fact, this seems to be how most people live their entire lives.

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